Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) is an umbrella term that gained a lot of popularity in recent times. It encompasses all the uses of technology to connect and improve all aspects of travel. It's often displayed as an application/route planner where all different mobility providers and solutions are presented based on your desired journey.

What do we mean by Mobility-as-a-Service and how to you evaluate a city's readiness?


  • This report provides an overview on the topic of MaaS by explaining what is it, how it works and who are the different stakeholders involved. It is a guid on how to set up such an integrated mobility platform.

  • In this guide to Maas, you'll find an exercise to help you build a MaaS model for your city.

  • CIVITAS have outlined some MaaS Readiness Indicators so local authorities can better assess how prepared they are to implement MaaS solutions.

  • This Shared Mobility Benefits Calculator, now available for beta testing, is an aspirational tool for cities to estimate the emissions benefits from deploying various modes of shared mobility.

  • This official Policy Brief of UITP aims to provide guidance on what MaaS is and how it can become a tool to provide better and more affordable mobility for all.

"The most important point might be how to engage with the users. The goal of MaaS and shared mobility is to create a more sustainable transport scheme. This does not happen unless we manage to convince the users to use these transport modes. One has to align the interest of the cities and individuals. From the user point of view, the most important factors might be health benefit, affordability, flexibility and certainty."

Piia Karjalainen is responsible for Urban Mobility at Ertico - ITS Europe and leading and coordinating all the activities of the MaaS Alliance.


Colin MurphyShared-Use Mobility Centre

There is a risk of the cities becoming too dependent on the mobility providers. And then suddenly, the service is gone. I think the more you rely on these large integrated vertical solutions (MaaS), the more this gets amplified. This risk can be mitigated by legislation or in the statutes and the permit operations. The city can emphasise that mobility providers operating in their cities must cooperate with an open platform, or an open API.

Stijn Vernaillen

People living in the city know their way around, and do not necessarily need a MaaS platform to access all that information. It is more for people coming from outside the city that profit more from a MaaS solution. Also, once you are outside of the city, it does not work anymore. Thus, I do not think it is the role of a city to provide a MaaS app. Also, I do not think it is profitable or self-sustaining in a “smaller city”. I think you need at least one million users. In the city of Antwerp, we have a requirement for mobility providers to collaborate with at least two MaaS providers. We consider the MaaS providers similar to mobility providers. They also need to share data, and deliver certainty. For us as the city, it does not matter whether people use a MaaS app or any other ticket.

Lastly, I think it is important that we also consider walking as an option.

Piia Karjalainen
MaaS Alliance, Ertico

The market creation aspect is also important as the transport sector is going through a liberalisation of the market so we are more relying on the public-private complementary of the service:

  • Innovation capacity

  • Integration of local mobility providers

  • Impartiality

  • How much we can support the user choice

  • Is the solution something we want to promote?